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Oracle® Database Backup and Recovery Basics
10g Release 1 (10.1)

Part Number B10735-01
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1 Backup and Recovery Overview

What is Backup and Recovery?
Physical Backups and Logical Backups
Errors and Failures Requiring Recovery from Backup
Oracle Backup and Recovery Solutions: RMAN and User-Managed Backup
Backup and Recovery: Basic Concepts
Physical Database Structures Used in Recovering Data
The Database Recovery Process: Basic Concepts
Forms of Data Recovery
Datafile Media Recovery: Restore Datafiles, Apply Redo
Complete, Incomplete and Point-In-Time Recovery
Automatic Recovery After Instance Failure: Crash Recovery
Backup and Recovery with RMAN
Types of Oracle Database Backup under RMAN
Matching Failures to Backup and Recovery Techniques
Media Failure
User Error
Automatic Disk-Based Backup and Recovery: The Flash Recovery Area
System Requirements for Backup and Recovery Methods
Feature Comparison of Backup Methods

2 Backup and Recovery Strategies

Data Recovery Strategy Determines Backup Strategy
Planning Data Recovery Strategy
Planning a Response to User Error: Point-in-Time Recovery and Flashback Features
Planning a Response to Media Failure: Restore and Media Recovery
Planning a Response to Datafile Block Corruption: Block Media Recovery
Planning Backup Strategy
Protecting Your Redundancy Set
Deciding Whether to Use a Flash Recovery Area
Choosing a Backup Retention Policy
Archiving Older Backups
Determining Backup Frequency
Performing Backups Before and After You Make Structural Changes
Backing Up Frequently Used Tablespaces
Backing Up after NOLOGGING Operations
Exporting Data for Added Protection and Flexibility
Preventing the Backup of Online Redo Logs
Keeping Records of the Hardware and Software Configuration of the Server
Validating Your Data Recovery Strategy

3 Setting Up and Configuring Backup and Recovery

Starting and Exiting RMAN: Overview
Types of Database Connections
Authentication for Database Connections
Setting Globalization Support Environment Variables for RMAN
Connecting to the Target Database
Connecting to the Target Database from the Command Line
Connecting to the Target Database from the RMAN Prompt
Setting Up a Database for RMAN Backup
Persistent Configuration Settings: Controlling RMAN Behavior
Configuring the Default Device Type for Backups
Configuring the Default Backup Type for Disk Backups
Configuring Compressed Backupsets as Default for Tape or Disk
Configuring Disk Devices and Channels
Configuring Tape Devices and Channels
Configuring Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackup
Setting Up a Flash Recovery Area for RMAN
Choosing a Location for the Flash Recovery Area
Files That Can Be Stored in the Flash Recovery Area
Planning the Size of the Flash Recovery Area
Setting Initialization Parameters for the Flash Recovery Area
Configuring the Backup Retention Policy
How Oracle Manages Disk Space in the Flash Recovery Area
Configure Flash Recovery Area for Disk-Based Backups: Example
Creating a Database with Multiplexed Files in the Flash Recovery Area: Scenario
Creating a Database with Only Archived Logs in the Flash Recovery Area: Scenario

4 Making Backups with Recovery Manager

Overview of RMAN Backups
Files That RMAN Can Back Up
RMAN Backup Formats: Image Copies and Backup Sets
Full and Incremental Datafile Backups
RMAN Backups and Tags
Backing Up Database Files and Archived Logs with RMAN
Making Consistent and Inconsistent Backups with RMAN
Making Whole Database Backups with RMAN
Backing Up Individual Tablespaces with RMAN
Backing Up Datafiles and Datafile Copies with RMAN
Backing Up Control Files with RMAN
Backing Up Server Parameter Files with RMAN
Backing Up Archived Redo Logs with RMAN
Using Compressed Backupsets
RMAN Incremental Backups
Making Incremental Backups: BACKUP INCREMENTAL
Incrementally Updated Backups: Rolling Forward Image Copy Backups
Improving Incremental Backup Performance: Change Tracking
Backing Up to the Flash Recovery Area: Basic Scenarios
Scripting Disk-Only Backups
Backing Up to the Flash Recovery Area and to Tape: Basic Scenarios
Configuring the RMAN Environment for Disk and Tape Backups
Writing Backup Scripts for Disk and Tape Scenarios
Validating RMAN Backups
Overview of Querying the RMAN Repository
Listing RMAN Backups, Archived Logs, and Database Incarnations
About RMAN Lists
Listing Backups
Listing Backups in Summary Mode
Listing Backups with Restrictions
Listing Database Incarnations
Reporting on Backups and Database Schema
About RMAN Reports
Reporting on Objects Needing a Backup
Reporting Obsolete Backups
Reporting on the Database Schema

5 Performing Recovery

Database Restore and Recovery with RMAN: Overview
Scope and Limitations of this Chapter
Restore and Recovery with Enterprise Manager
Preparing and Planning Database Restore and Recovery
Database Restore and Recovery Procedure: Outline
Determining Which Database Files to Restore or Recover
Determining your DBID
Previewing Backups Used in Restore Operations: RESTORE PREVIEW
Validating the Restore of Backups: RESTORE VALIDATE
Basic Database Restore and Recovery Scenarios
Whole Database Restore and Recovery: Scenario
Restore and Recovery of Individual Tablespaces or Datafiles: Scenario
Restoring Different Types of Lost Database Files with RMAN
Restoring the Control File from Backup
Restoring the Server Parameter File (SPFILE) from Backup
Restoring and Recovering Datafiles and Tablespaces to a New Location
Restoring Archived Redo Logs from Backup

6 Recovery Manager Maintenance Tasks

Managing the RMAN Repository Without a Recovery Catalog
Backing Up and Restoring the Control File
Monitoring the Overwriting of Control File Records
Maintaining the RMAN Repository in the Control File
Crosschecking Backups
Deleting Backups
Crosschecking and Deleting on Multiple RMAN Channels
About Allocating Multiple RMAN Channels for Maintenance Commands
How RMAN Crosschecks and Deletes on Multiple Channels
Crosschecking Disk and Tape Channels with One Command: Example
Crosschecking on Multiple Oracle Real Application Cluster Nodes: Example
Deleting on Disk and Tape Channels with One DELETE Command: Example
Releasing Multiple Channels: Example
Deleting a Database with RMAN
Changing the Status of a Backup Record
Exempting a Backup from the Retention Policy
Cataloging Archived Logs and User-Managed Copies
About Cataloging Archived Logs and User-Managed Copies
Cataloging User-Managed Datafile Copies
Cataloging Backup Pieces
Cataloging All Files in a Disk Location
Uncataloging RMAN Records
About Uncataloging RMAN Records
Removing Records for Files Deleted with Operating System Utilities
Flash Recovery Area Maintenance
Resolving a Full Flash Recovery Area
Changing the Flash Recovery Area to a New Location
Flash Recovery Area Behavior When Instance Crashes During File Creation